Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20180044
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Original Article

Association between temporomandibular disorder symptoms and demographic, dental and behavioral factors in the elderly: a population-based cross-sectional study

Associação entre sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular e fatores demográficos, odontológicos e comportamentais em idosos: um estudo transversal de base populacional

Claudia Maria Czernaik; Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes Muniz; Paulo Roberto Grafitti Colussi; Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing; Eliane Lucia Colussi

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms and the associated factors in the elderly of a city in southern Brazil.

METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study performed in residential homes, with probabilistic cluster sample, interviewed and examined 287 seniors aged from 65 to 74 years in the city of Cruz Alta, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The Fonseca Anamnestic Index was used for temporomandibular dysfunction analysis, as well as a structured questionnaire for socioeconomic conditions and an oral health clinical examination. Either Chi-square or Mann-Whitney tests assessed associations between the dependent and independent variables and presented by frequency distribution. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to verify the association between temporomandibular dysfunction risk and explanatory variables. For all statistical analyses, a 5% significance level was adopted.

RESULTS: The prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms was 55.1%. In the final multivariate model, age ≥70 years (RP=0.674; 95% CI: 0.516 - 0.881) showed as a protection factor against temporomandibular dysfunction, and the average of tooth loss (RP=1.022; 95% CI: 1.004 - 1.039) showed as a risk factor for temporomandibular dysfunction in relation to their respective controls.

CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study showed a high prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms. Age and tooth loss were associated with higher risk of temporomandibular dysfunction. The results suggested the need for improvement in oral health conditions of the elderly and the importance of further epidemiological studies about temporomandibular dysfunction in this population.

Keywords

Aging, Oral health, Prevalence, Risk factors, Temporal joint dysfunction syndrome

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a gravidade dos sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular e seus fatores em idosos de uma cidade do sul do Brasil.

MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional transversal de domicílios residenciais, com amostra probabilística por conglomerado, entrevistou e examinou 287 idosos, com idade entre 65 e 74 anos da cidade Cruz Alta, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O Índice Anamnésico de Fonseca foi utilizado para avaliação da disfunção temporomandibular, além de um questionário estruturado para condições socioeconômicas e um exame clínico de saúde bucal. As associações entre a variável dependente e a independente foram avaliadas pelos testes de Qui-quadrado ou Mann-Whitney, apresentadas por meio da distribuição de frequências. As análises uni e multivariada foram realizadas para verificar a associação entre a disfunção temporomandibular e as variáveis exploratórias. Para todas as análises, o nível de significância foi de 5%.

RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular foi de 55,1%. No modelo multivariado final, a idade ≥70 anos (RP=0,674; 95% IC: 0,516 - 0,881) apresentou-se como fator de proteção para disfunção temporomandibular e a média de perda dentária (RP=1,022; 95% IC: 1,004 - 1,039) apresentou-se como fator de risco para disfunção temporomandibular em relação a seus respectivos controles.

CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram alta prevalência de sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular. A idade e a média de perda dentária foram associadas à disfunção temporomandibular. Os resultados sugerem melhorias nas condições de saúde bucal dos idosos e a importância de estudos epidemiológicos sobre disfunção temporomandibular nessa população.

Palavras-chave

Envelhecimento, Fatores de risco, Prevalência, Saúde bucal, Síndrome da disfunção da articulação temporomandibular

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Submitted date:
01/22/2018

Accepted date:
06/22/2018

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