Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20180049
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Review Article

The current treatment of fibromyalgia

O tratamento atual da fibromialgia

José Oswaldo de Oliveira Júnior; Mauro Brito de Almeida

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia is a highly relevant theme for research considering its impressive 2% worldwide prevalence, diffuse pain and suffering, largely unknown pathophysiology, scarce odds of cure and, more often than not, poor symptom control. This study aims to review the main options of treatment for fibromyalgia, including some novel alternatives.

CONTENTS: The pharmacological treatment for fibromyalgia can be prescribed in monotherapy or combination of drugs, which comprises antidepressants, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, opioids, N-methyl D-Aspartate antagonists, melatoninergic agonists, peptidergic substances among others. Non-pharmacological therapies include acupuncture, behavioral (or psychobehavioral) and psychological (or psychotherapy) interventions, physical activity programs, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, ozone therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, stretching exercises associated to low intravenous curare doses, among others. Treatment modalities are presented according to possible mechanisms of action, level of scientific evidence and recommendation.

CONCLUSION: Fibromyalgia therapy should be individualized, and it does not aim the cure. Its objective is to reduce the subject’s suffering; provide function improvement and, as much as possible, the individual’s autonomy and quality of life. There is much in common in most approach recommendations, yet there are some divergence and changes as knowledge is acquired about a theme where consensus is far from being achieved.

Keywords

Amytriptiline, Behavioral therapy, Duloxetine, Fibromyalgia, Physical activity programs, Pregabalin, Treatment

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A impressionante prevalência de 2% da fibromialgia na população mundial, associada ao sofrimento a ela atribuída, à sua fisiopatologia ainda não integralmente desvendada, ao prognóstico reservado em relação à possibilidade de cura, e, aos resultados insatisfatórios no controle de seus sintomas, mormente os dolorosos; fazem dela um tema preferencial para investigação e estudo. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar uma revisão sobre os principais tratamentos sugeridos para os portadores de fibromialgia, incluindo alguns emergentes.

CONTEÚDO: O tratamento farmacológico da fibromialgia pode ser aplicado em monoterapia ou combinar fármacos, inclusive antidepressivos, relaxantes musculares, anticonvulsivantes, canabinoides, opioides, antagonistas N-metil D-Aspartato, agonistas melatoninérgicos, substâncias peptidérgicas entre outras. Os tratamentos classificados como não farmacológicos incluem a acupuntura, intervenções comportamentais (ou psicocomportamentais), psicológicas (ou psicoterápicas), programas de atividade física, oxigenoterapia hiperbárica, ozonioterapia, estimulação magnética transcraniana, relaxamento muscular com baixas doses de curare por via venosa associado a alongamento e realongamento, entre outros. Os tratamentos são apresentados e situados em relação aos respectivos possíveis mecanismos de ação, evidência científica e graus de recomendação.

CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento da fibromialgia é individualizado, e, não propõe sua cura. O objetivo é a redução do sofrimento de seus portadores, a melhora da funcionalidade, e na medida do possível, da autonomia pessoal e da qualidade de vida. A maioria das condutas e recomendações possuem muito em comum, porém não são totalmente congruentes, mostram dinamismo e mudanças à medida em que se acumula conhecimento sobre um assunto sobre o qual o consenso ainda está muito longe de ocorrer.

Palavras-chave

Amitriptilina, Duloxetina, Fibromialgia, Pregabalina, Programas de atividade física, Terapia psicocomportamental, Tratamento

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Submitted date:
05/23/2018

Accepted date:
07/18/2018

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