Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20200010
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Original Article

Central sensitization and beliefs among patients with chronic pain in a primary health care unit

Sensibilização central e crenças entre pacientes com dores crônicas em uma unidade de atenção primária de saúde

Gustavo Henrique Dionísio; Victor Yoshioka Salermo; Alexandre Padilha

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The pain that persists for more than three months is classified as chronic pain. Current studies suggest the existence of a dynamic relationship between biological changes, psychological state, and social context within the pain phenomenon and its chronicity. Central sensitization can be defined as the amplification of the neural signaling within the central nervous system that causes pain hypersensitivity, characterized by overlapping symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the central sensitization, dysfunctional beliefs and other variables such as self-perception about sleep quality in a group of patients with chronic pain.

METHODS: The patients answered sociodemographic questions, questions about pain-related habits and beliefs, and completed the central sensitization questionnaire.

RESULTS: The 30 participants involved in the study had a mean value of 49.86±16.14 for central sensitization, as well as a high presence of dysfunctional beliefs and poor sleep self-perception.

CONCLUSION: The need for a biopsychosocial look aiming to investigate the beliefs and level of central sensitization of patients with chronic pain is becoming increasingly necessary, as it is essential to understand the socioeconomic conditions of each individual for better evaluation and management. An initial educational approach in an easy language that stimulated the reflection and participation of patients to understand their symptoms was well accepted by these patients.

Keywords

Chronic pain, Health education, Pain management, Primary health care

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: É classificada como dor crônica a dor que persiste por um período superior a três meses. Estudos atuais sugerem a existência de uma relação dinâmica entre mudanças biológicas, estado psicológico e contexto social dentro do fenômeno da dor e de sua cronificação. A sensibilização central pode ser definida como a amplificação da sinalização neural dentro do sistema nervoso central que provoca hipersensibilidade à dor, caracterizada pela sobreposição de sintomas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a sensibilização central, crenças disfuncionais e outras variáveis como autopercepção sobre qualidade do sono em um grupo de pacientes com dores crônicas de uma unidade de atenção primária de saúde.

MÉTODOS: Os pacientes responderam a questões sociodemográficas, questões sobre hábitos e crenças relacionadas à dor e preencheram o questionário de sensibilização central.

RESULTADOS: Os 30 participantes incluídos no estudo apresentaram o valor médio de 49,86±16,14 para sensibilização central, além de elevada presença de crenças disfuncionais e autopercepção ruim do sono.

CONCLUSÃO: A necessidade de um olhar biopsicossocial, que se proponha a investigar as crenças e o nível de sensibilização central de pacientes com dores crônicas se mostra cada vez mais necessário, assim como é fundamental compreender as condições socioeconômicas de cada indivíduo para melhor avaliação e cuidado. Abordagem inicial educativa, com linguagem acessiva, que estimula a reflexão e participação dos pacientes para a compreensão dos seus sintomas foi bem aceita pelos pacientes.

Palavras-chave

Atenção primária à saúde, Dor crônica, Educação em saúde, Manejo da dor

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Submitted date:
07/30/2019

Accepted date:
12/10/2019

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