Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20200022
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Original Article

Effect of environmental enrichment associated or not with physical activity on nociceptive and motor functions in an animal model of fibromyalgia

Efeito do enriquecimento ambiental associado ou não a atividade física nas funções nociceptivas e motoras em um modelo animal de fibromialgia

Solano Savio Figueiredo-Dourado; Lucas Vasconcelos Lima; Rosana Givigi; Josimari Melo DeSantana

Downloads: 0
Views: 174

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome, characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain and the reduction of physical/functional performance as a major comorbidity. Pharmacological treatment of fibromyalgia has limited effectiveness, making it important to study non-pharmacological therapies, emphasizing physical activity, cognitive behavioral therapy and distracting techniques. Environment enrichment and physical activity have been used in the treatment of diseases associated with increases in peripheral and central nociceptive activity. The objective of this study was the investigation of environmental enrichment, a technique based on physical, sensory and cognitive stimulation, and voluntary physical activity for hyperalgesia prevention in an experimental model of fibromyalgia.

METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were split into four groups: 1. environmental enrichment, 2. physical activity, 3. environmental enrichment plus physical activity and 4. control and kept in these protocols for 4 weeks. Next, diffuse chronic muscle pain was induced by a double injection of acidic saline in the left gastrocnemius muscle. Mechanical paw withdrawal threshold, thermal latency, neuromuscular activity and ambulation in six different moments were assessed: baseline, after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks and 24 hours after chronic muscle pain induction.

RESULTS: Animals kept in the environmental enrichment plus physical activity protocol showed increased mechanical threshold, thermal latency, neuromuscular activity and ambulation even after the acidic saline injections.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest association between environmental enrichment and physical activity as a strategy for chronic musculoskeletal pain prevention and physical performance optimization in a diffuse chronic muscle pain model.

Keywords

Exercise, Fibromyalgia, Hyperalgesia, Pain

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome complexa, caracterizada por dor musculoesquelética crônica generalizada, tendo como principal comorbidade a redução do desempenho físico/funcional. O tratamento farmacológico da fibromialgia tem eficácia limitada, tornando importante o estudo de terapias não farmacológicas, enfatizando a atividade física, terapia cognitivo-comportamental e técnicas de distração. O enriquecimento ambiental e a atividade física têm sido utilizados no tratamento de doenças associadas ao aumento da atividade nociceptiva periférica e central. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o enriquecimento ambiental, uma técnica baseada na estimulação física, sensorial e cognitiva e atividade física voluntária para prevenção de hiperalgesia em um modelo experimental de fibromialgia.

MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em quatro grupos: 1. enriquecimento ambiental, 2. atividade física, 3. enriquecimento ambiental somado a atividade física e 4. controle, e mantidos nesses protocolos por 4 semanas. A dor muscular crônica difusa foi induzida por uma injeção dupla de salina ácida no músculo gastrocnêmio esquerdo. Foram avaliados o limiar mecânico de retirada da pata, latência térmica, atividade neuromuscular e deambulação em seis momentos diferentes: basal, após a 1ª, 2ª, 3ª e 4ª semanas e 24h após a indução crônica da dor muscular.

RESULTADOS: Os animais mantidos no protocolo de enriquecimento ambiental somado a atividade física apresentaram aumento do limiar mecânico, latência térmica, atividade neuromuscular e deambulação mesmo após injeções de salinas ácidas.

CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados sugerem a associação entre enriquecimento ambiental e atividade física como estratégia para prevenção da dor musculoesquelética e déficit motor em modelo de fibromialgia.

Palavras-chave

Dor, Exercício, Fibromialgia, Hiperalgesia

References

Chung CP, Titova D, Oeser A, Randels M, Avalos I, Milne GL. Oxidative stress in fibromyalgia and its relationship to symptoms. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28(4):435-8.

Cordero MD, de Miguel M, Carmona-López I, Bonal P, Campa F, Moreno-Fernández AM. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in fibromyalgia. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31(2):169-73.

Busch AJ, Webber SC, Brachaniec M, Bidonde J, Bello-Haas VD, Danyliw AD. Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2011;15(5):358-67.

Carville SF, Arendt-Nielsen L, Arendt-Nielsen S, Bliddal H, Blotman F, Branco JC. EULAR evidence-based recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67(4):536-41.

Heymann RE, Paiva E dos S, Helfenstein M, Pollak DF, Martinez JE, Provenza JR. Brazilian consensus on the treatment of fibromyalgia. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2010;50(1):56-66.

Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Moore RA, Aldington D, Cole P, Rice ASC. Antiepileptic drugs for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia - an overview of Cochrane reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;11(11).

Clauw DJ. Fibromyalgia: a clinical review. JAMA. 2014;311(15):1547-55.

Kroenke K, Krebs EE, Bair MJ. Pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a synthesis of recommendations from systematic reviews. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009;31(3):206-19.

Harris RE. Elevated excitatory neurotransmitter levels in the fibromyalgia brain. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12(5):141.

Harris RE, Napadow V, Huggins JP, Pauer L, Kim J, Hampson J. Pregabalin rectifies aberrant brain chemistry, connectivity, and functional response in chronic pain patients. Anesthesiology. 2013;119(6):1453-64.

Williams DA, Cary MA, Groner KH, Chaplin W, Glazer LJ, Rodriguez AM. Improving physical functional status in patients with fibromyalgia: a brief cognitive behavioral intervention. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(6):1280-6.

Goldenberg DL, Burckhardt C, Crofford L. Management of fibromyalgia syndrome. JAMA. 2004;292(19):2388-95.

Jones KD, Sherman CA, Mist SD, Carson JW, Bennett RM, Li F. A randomized controlled trial of 8-form Tai chi improves symptoms and functional mobility in fibromyalgia patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2012;31(8):1205-14.

Hendriksen H, Prins J, Olivier B, Oosting RS. Environmental enrichment induces behavioral recovery and enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation in an antidepressant-resistant animal model for PTSD. PloS One. 2010;5(8).

Rojas JJ, Deniz BF, Miguel PM, Diaz R, Hermel E do E-S, Achaval M. Effects of daily environmental enrichment on behavior and dendritic spine density in hippocampus following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in the rat. Exp Neurol. 2013;241:25-33.

Vachon P, Millecamps M, Low L, Thompsosn SJ, Pailleux F, Beaudry F. Alleviation of chronic neuropathic pain by environmental enrichment in mice well after the establishment of chronic pain. Behav Brain Funct BBF. 2013;7(9):22.

Bement MKH, Sluka KA. Low-intensity exercise reverses chronic muscle pain in the rat in a naloxone-dependent manner. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(9):1736-40.

Gabriel AF, Paoletti G, Della Seta D, Panelli R, Marcus MAE, Farabollini F. Enriched environment and the recovery from inflammatory pain: Social versus physical aspects and their interaction. Behav Brain Res. 2010;208(1):90-5.

Sluka KA, Kalra A, Moore SA. Unilateral intramuscular injections of acidic saline produce a bilateral, long-lasting hyperalgesia. Muscle Nerve. 2001;24(1):37-46.

Pham TM, Hagman B, Codita A, Van Loo PLP, Strömmer L, Baumans V. Housing environment influences the need for pain relief during post-operative recovery in mice. Physiol Behav. 2010;99(5):663-8.

Blackburn-Munro G, Blackburn-Munro R. Pain in the brain: are hormones to blame?. Trends Endocrinol Metab TEM. 2003;14(1):20-7.

King CD, Devine DP, Vierck CJ, Rodgers J, Yezierski RP. Differential effects of stress on escape and reflex responses to nociceptive thermal stimuli in the rat. Brain Res. 2003;987(2):214-22.

Gameiro GH, Gameiro PH, Andrade A da S, Pereira LF, Arthuri MT, Marcondes FK. Nociception- and anxiety-like behavior in rats submitted to different periods of restraint stress. Physiol Behav. 2006;87(4):643-9.

Arakawa A, Kaneko M, Narukawa M. An investigation of factors contributing to higher levels of placebo response in clinical trials in neuropathic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Drug Investig. 2015;35(2):67-81.

Hall GC, Morant SV, Carroll D, Gabriel ZL, McQuay HJ. An observational descriptive study of the epidemiology and treatment of neuropathic pain in a UK general population. BMC Fam Pract. 2013;26(14):28.

Tall JM. Housing supplementation decreases the magnitude of inflammation-induced nociception in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2009;197(1):230-3.

Berrocal Y, Pearse DD, Singh A, Andrade CM, McBroom JS, Puentes R. Social and environmental enrichment improves sensory and motor recovery after severe contusive spinal cord injury in the rat. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24(11):1761-72.

Lankhorst AJ, ter Laak MP, van Laar TJ, van Meeteren NL, de Groot JC, Schrama LH. Effects of enriched housing on functional recovery after spinal cord contusive injury in the adult rat. J Neurotrauma. 2001;18(2):203-15.

Zimmermann A, Stauffacher M, Langhans W, Würbel H. Enrichment-dependent differences in novelty exploration in rats can be explained by habituation. Behav Brain Res. 2001;121(1-2):11-20.

Simonetti T, Lee H, Bourke M, Leamey CA, Sawatari A. Enrichment from birth accelerates the functional and cellular development of a motor control area in the mouse. PloS One. 2009;4(8).

Brenes JC, Rodríguez O, Fornaguera J. Differential effect of environment enrichment and social isolation on depressive-like behavior, spontaneous activity and serotonin and norepinephrine concentration in prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;89(1):85-93.

DeSantana JM, da Cruz KML, Sluka KA. Animal models of fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15(6):222.

Andin J, Hallbeck M, Mohammed AH, Marcusson J. Influence of environmental enrichment on steady-state mRNA levels for EAAC1, AMPA1 and NMDA2A receptor subunits in rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 2007;1174:18-27.

Smith MA, Chisholm KA, Bryant PA, Greene JL, McClean JM, Stoops WW. Social and environmental influences on opioid sensitivity in rats: importance of an opioid's relative efficacy at the mu-receptor. Psychopharmacology. 2005;181(1):27-37.

Sharma NK, Ryals JM, Gajewski BJ, Wright DE. Aerobic exercise alters analgesia and neurotrophin-3 synthesis in an animal model of chronic widespread pain. Phys Ther. 2010;90(5):714-25.

Arnold LM, Fan J, Russell IJ, Yunus MB, Khan MA, Kushner I. The fibromyalgia family study: a genome-wide linkage scan study. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65(4):1122-8.


Submitted date:
01/29/2020

Accepted date:
04/20/2020

5f28763f0e8825030d0e4938 brjp Articles

BrJP

Share this page
Page Sections