Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20220021
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Case Report

Phenotypic analysis of discordant monozygotic twins for pain-related temporomandibular joint disorder. Case report

Análise fenotípica de gêmeas monozigóticas discordantes para disfunção temporomandibular dolorosa. Relato de caso

Lais Valencise Magri; Melissa de Oliveira Melchior; Graziela Valle da-Silva; Edilaine Cristina Silva Gherardi-Donato; Christie Ramos Andrade Leite-Panissi

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The design of research with monozygotic twins discordant for the disease has emerged as a powerful tool for the detection of phenotypic risk factors. The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of monozygotic twins discordant for pain-related temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) from a cognitive-behavioral-emotional phenotypic analysis, from the comparison of clinical variables of pain, history of exposure to painful procedures in early childhood, and coping with pain.

CASE REPORT: TMD-Twin presented a diagnosis of painful (myofascial pain with referral) and joint (disk displacement with reduction) TMD according to the criteria of the DC/TMD. Control-Twin did not show TMD, however she presented other chronic pains. TMD-Twin showed reduced pressure pain threshold, hyperalgesia in trigeminal and extra-trigeminal regions compared to the Control-Twin. TMD-Twin was more exposed to painful procedures and emotional events due to congenital heart problems. Both had central sensitization based on the Central Sensitization Inventory, although TMD-Twin had more catastrophic thoughts about pain. TMD-Twin presented an internal locus of control.

CONCLUSION: Both monozygotic twins presented a chronic pain phenotype, although they were discordant with the TMD-related pain. The main differences were the lower pressure pain threshold and higher hyperalgesia locally presented by TMD-Twin. The internal locus of control indicates greater pain sensitivity, with better coping of the painful experience for the TMD-Twin. One possible explanation for this clinical condition can be that painful experiences in early childhood have shaped a phenotype of greater sensitivity with better coping and resilience to the painful condition.

Keywords

Chronic pain, Facial pain, Monozygotic twin, Temporomandibular joint disorders, Central nervous system sensitization

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O desenho da pesquisa com gêmeos monozigóticos discordantes para a doença surgiu como uma ferramenta poderosa para a detecção de fatores de risco fenotípicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso clínico de gêmeas monozigóticas discordantes para disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) dolorosa a partir de análise fenotípica cognitivo-comportamental-emocional entre elas, por meio de comparação de variáveis clínicas de dor, histórico de exposição a procedimentos dolorosos na primeira infância e enfrentamento de dor (autoeficácia e lócus de controle).

RELATO DO CASO: A gêmea-DTM apresentou diagnóstico de DTM dolorosa (dor miofascial com referência) e articular (deslocamento do disco com redução) segundo os critérios do Critérios de Diagnóstico para Distúrbios Temporomandibulares. A gêmea--controle não apresentou DTM, contudo apresentou manifestação clínica de outras dores crônicas. A gêmea-DTM apresentou limiar de dor à pressão reduzido, hiperalgesia em regiões trigeminais/extra-trigeminais quando comparados à gêmea-controle, que na primeira infância foi mais exposta a procedimentos dolorosos devido a problemas cardíacos congênitos. Ambas apresentaram sensibilização central de acordo com o Inventário de Sensibilização Central, embora a gêmea-DTM apresentou mais pensamentos catastróficos sobre a dor. A gêmea-DTM apresentou lócus de controle interno.

CONCLUSÃO: Ambas as gêmeas apresentaram fenótipo de dor crônica, apesar do fato de serem discordantes para a DTM. Dentre as avaliações, as que mais diferiram entre o par foram o baixo limiar de dor à pressão e hiperalgesia local presentes na gêmea com DTM. O lócus de controle interno associado à maior sensibilidade indicou melhor enfrentamento da experiência dolorosa para a gêmea-DTM. Uma possível explicação para esta manifestação clínica está pautada na hipótese de que experiências dolorosas na primeira infância vivenciadas por ela tenham moldado um fenótipo de maior sensibilidade com melhor enfrentamento e resiliência frente à condição dolorosa.

Palavras-chave

Dor crônica, Dor facial, Gêmeos monozigóticos, Síndrome da disfunção da articulação temporomandibular, Sensibilização do sistema nervoso central

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Submitted date:
12/15/2021

Accepted date:
04/08/2022

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