Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20220030-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Original Article

Use of sedatives and analgesics and hospital outcomes in pediatric intensive care: a cohort study

Uso de sedativos e analgésicos e desfechos hospitalares em terapia intensiva pediátrica: estudo de coorte

Tayná Vieira; Arnildo Linck-Júnior; Mauren Teresa Grubisich Mendes Tacla; Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta Ferrari; Flávia Lopes Gabani

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Continuous infusion sedoanalgesia may favor negative hospital outcomes, thus, the objective was to analyze the relationship between continuous infusion sedoanalgesia and factors such as duration of mechanical pulmonary ventilation (MPV), extubation failure, hospital infections, length of hospitalization, and death in a mixed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The aim of this study was to identify the association of the use of sedatives and analgesics in continuous infusion with hospital outcomes through the control of confounding variables.

METHODS: Retrospective cohort with hospitalizations of children aged zero to 14 years, from 2012 to 2017. Use of continuous sedoanalgesia was considered a factor for the outcomes: duration of MPV, extubation failure, hospital infections (healthcare-associated infections - HCAI, fungal infection and catheter-related bloodstream infection), length of stay in the PICU and hospital, and death. Poisson regression was performed with adjustment by progressive models, with a significance level of 5%, calculation of relative risk (RR) and confidence interval (95% CI).

RESULTS: A total of 894 hospitalizations were analyzed, with a predominance of males (54.3%), non-malnourished children (70.7%) and without a diagnosis of chronic disease (55.1%). Infants accounted for half of the population. The outcomes that were associated with continuous sedoanalgesia in the final model were: MPV time > 4 days (RR=2.74; 95%CI=1.90-3.93), HCAI (RR=1.91; 95%CI=.32-2.80), fungal infection (RR=2.00; 95%CI=1.12-3.58), length of stay in the PICU > 3 days (RR=1.81; 95%CI=1.51-2.17) and hospital stay > 10 days (RR=1.52; 95%CI=1.27-1.84), and death (RR=0.64; 95%CI=0.43-0.95).

CONCLUSION: MPV time longer than four days, diagnosis of HCAI, diagnosis of fungal infection, length of stay in the PICU longer than three days, and hospitalization time longer than 10 days were factors more present in children who received continuous infusion of sedoanalgesia. Death, on the other hand, was more related to severity variables than to the use of psychoactive drugs.

Keywords

Analgesia, Artificial ventilation, Cross infection, Deep sedation, Intensive Care Units, Length of stay

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A sedoanalgesia em infusão contínua pode favorecer desfechos hospitalares negativos, assim, o objetivo foi analisar a relação entre sedoanalgesia em infusão contínua e fatores como tempo de ventilação pulmonar mecânica (VPM), falha de extubação, infecções hospitalares, tempo de internação e óbito numa unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica (UTIP) mista.

MÉTODOS: Coorte retrospectivo com internações de crianças de zero a 14 anos, de 2012 a 2017. Uso de sedoanalgesia contínua foi considerado fator para os desfechos tempo de VPM, falha de extubação, infecções hospitalares (infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde - IRAS, infecção fúngica e infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateter), tempo de internação em UTIP e no hospital e óbito. Foi realizada a regressão de Poisson com ajuste por modelos progressivos com nível de significância de 5%, cálculo do risco relativo (RR) e intervalo de confiança (IC 95%). Este estudo buscou identificar a associação do uso de sedativos e analgésicos em infusão contínua com desfechos hospitalares por meio do controle de variáveis de confusão.

RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 894 internações, predominando o sexo masculino (54,3%), crianças não desnutridas (70,7%) e sem diagnóstico de doença crônica (55,1%). Lactentes representaram metade da população. Os desfechos que se associaram à sedoanalgesia contínua no modelo final foram: tempo de VPM > 4 dias (RR=2,74; IC95%=1,90-3,93), IRAS (RR=1,91; IC95%=1,32-2,80), infecção fúngica (RR=2,00; IC95%=1,12-3,58), tempo de internação na UTIP > 3 dias (RR=1,81; IC95%=1,51-2,17) e hospitalar > 10 dias (RR=1,52; IC95%=1,27-1,84) e óbito (RR=0,64; IC95%=0,43-0,95).

CONCLUSÃO: Tempo de VPM maior que quatro dias, diagnóstico de IRAS, diagnóstico de infecção fúngica, tempo de internação na UTIP maior que três dias e tempo de internação hospitalar maior que 10 dias foram mais incidentes nas crianças que receberam sedoanalgesia em infusão contínua. Já o óbito apresentou maior relação com as variáveis de gravidade do que com o uso de fármacos psicoativos.

Palavras-chave

Analgesia, Infecções nosocomiais, Sedação profunda, Tempo de internação, Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica, Ventilação artificial

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Submitted date:
08/24/2021

Accepted date:
05/13/2022

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