Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20220045-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Review Article

Counseling to change the lifestyle of sedentary workers on musculoskeletal pain: systematic review

Aconselhamento para mudança do estilo de vida de trabalhadores sedentários sobre a dor musculoesquelética: revisão sistemática

Jeferson Santos Jerônimo; Samuel Völz Lopes; Fernando Carlos Vinholes Siqueira; Marcelo Cozzensa da-Silva

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in sedentary workers is a cause of absenteeism, high health costs and is relate to their lifestyle and work. Systematic reviews of interventions on the condition of MSP in this population are based on work equipment and do not present consensus on the type of intervention and its effectiveness. Terefore, the objective was to analyze the evidence of intervention studies that included education strategies to change the lifestyle of sedentary workers on the reduction of MSP.

CONTENTS: This systematic review follows the recommendations of PRISMA 2020. Searches were conducted until April 2021 in the PubMed, BIREME and Scielo databases, in order to identify randomized or non-randomized clinical trials published between January 1999 and April 2021. Indexed search descriptors were used and eligibility criteria were defined according to the PICOS strategy. The risk of bias was assessed using the PEDro scale. Eight randomized clinical trials published between 2004 and 2020, conducted in Europe, Asia, the United States and Australia involving 1,871 people (35 to 52 years old) were included. Interventions ranged from two weeks to 12 months. Five studies showed a higher number of women. In addition to lifestyle counseling, three studies addressed work characteristics (time in sitting posture, body posture) and three others investigated issues related to pain (symptoms, neck/shoulder anatomy and self-management). Six interventions were effective to reduce the intensity and frequency of MSP in the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine, shoulders and thoracic spine, which used counseling to increase the practice of physical activity, stress control, healthy eating, decreased alcohol consumption and smoking. Six studies presented medium/low bias risk in the following items: occult allocation, baseline comparability, blinding (individuals, therapists and evaluators), adequate follow-up and intention to treat analysis; and two studies presented medium/high risk in the same items, except in baseline comparability.

CONCLUSION: Workplace interventions that include education strategies and counseling for lifestyle changes are effective for reducing the intensity and frequency of MSP in sedentary workers. PROSPERO registration: CRD42022342636.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Lifestyle education can reduce musculoskeletal pain in workers.
  • Physical activity and stress control contribute to reducing pain intensity.
  • The workplace is a potent environment for decreasing musculoskeletal pain.

Keywords

Counseling, Exercise, Lifestyle, Musculoskeletal pain, Occupational health, Sedentary behavior

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dor musculoesquelética (DME) em trabalhadores sedentários é causa de absenteísmo, custos elevados em saúde e está relacionada ao seu estilo de vida e de trabalho. Revisões sistemáticas de intervenções sobre a condição de DME nesta população baseiam-se nos equipamentos de trabalho e não apresentam consenso quanto ao tipo de intervenção e sua efetividade. Portanto, o objetivo foi analisar as evidências dos estudos de intervenção que incluíram estratégias de educação para mudança do estilo de vida de trabalhadores sedentários para a redução da DME.

CONTEÚDO: Esta revisão sistemática segue as recomendações do PRISMA 2020. Foram realizadas buscas até abril de 2021 nas bases de dados Pubmed, BIREME e Scielo, visando identificar estudos clínicos randomizados ou não randomizados publicados entre janeiro de 1999 e abril de 2021. Foram utilizados descritores de busca indexados e definidos critérios de elegibilidade segundo a estratégia PICOS. O risco de viés foi avaliado por meio da escala PEDro. Foram incluídos oito estudos clínicos randomizados publicados entre 2004 e 2020, realizados na Europa, Ásia, Estados Unidos e Austrália, que envolveram 1.871 pessoas (35 a 52 anos). As intervenções variaram de duas semanas a 12 meses. Cinco estudos apresentaram maior número de mulheres. Além dos aconselhamentos para estilo de vida, três estudos abordaram características do trabalho (tempo na postura sentada, postura corporal) e outros três investigaram questões relacionadas à dor (sintomas, anatomia pescoço/ombro e autogerenciamento). Seis intervenções foram efetivas para a redução da intensidade e da frequência de DME nas regiões cervical e lombar da coluna, nos ombros e coluna torácica, as quais utilizaram aconselhamentos para aumento da prática de atividade física, controle do estresse, alimentação saudável, diminuição do consumo de álcool e do tabagismo. Seis estudos apresentaram risco de viés médio/baixo nos itens alocação oculta, comparabilidade da linha de base, cegamento (indivíduos, terapeutas e avaliadores), acompanhamento adequado e análise de intenção de tratar; e dois estudos apresentaram risco médio/alto nos mesmos itens, exceto na comparabilidade da linha de base.

CONCLUSÃO: Intervenções realizadas no local de trabalho e que incluam estratégias de educação e aconselhamentos para mudanças no estilo de vida podem ser efetivas para redução da intensidade e da frequência de DME em trabalhadores sedentários. Registro PROSPERO: CRD42022342636.

DESTAQUES

  • Educação a respeito de estilo de vida pode reduzir a dor musculoesquelética de trabalhadores.
  • Atividade física e controle do estresse contribuem para redução da intensidade de dor.
  • O local de trabalho é um ambiente potente para melhora na dor musculoesquelética.

Palavras-chave

Aconselhamento, Comportamento sedentário, Dor musculoesquelética, Estilo de vida, Exercício físico, Saúde do trabalhador

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Submitted date:
12/29/2021

Accepted date:
08/18/2022

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