Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20220048-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Review Article

Physical exercise in the control of pain or fatigue associated with viral infections: systematic review

Exercícios físicos no controle de dor ou fadiga associadas às infecções virais: revisão sistemática

Mônica Andrade Rios; Bruno Teixeira Goes; Abrahão Fontes Baptista; Leonardo Santana Ramos de Oliveira; Katia Nunes Sá

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals after viral infections remain with persistent symptoms such as pain and fatigue. Physical exercises have been described as a promising alternative for the control of these symptoms, but there are no systematic reviews that verify the effectiveness of this therapy and that assess the quality of these studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical exercise on pain or fatigue associated with viral infections.

METHODS: Systematic review registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021265174). Data collection was carried out between July 2021 and January 2022. Randomized clinical trials that addressed the practice of exercises, in individuals over 18 years of age, diagnosed with viral infection associated with the presence of pain or fatigue for more than 3 months were included. The search was carried out in the Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS and Scielo databases, and the paired selection was carried out in the software (rayyan.ai); risk of bias analysis was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials 2; certainty of evidence through GRADE; and for the construction of the meta-analysis, the Review Manager software.

RESULTS: Eleven clinical trials were selected in populations with acquired immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV), chikungunya and poliomyelitis. For both pain and fatigue, the combination of aerobic exercise with resistance training, lasting 40 to 60 minutes, two to three times a week, was effective and safe. The methodological quality of the studies showed a high risk of bias in six studies due to the following domains: bias due to deviations from the intended interventions, bias due to lack of outcome data and bias in the selection of the reported outcome; rated as some concerns in one study due to the domain bias due to deviations from intended interventions; and the others were assessed as low risk of bias. The meta-analysis showed a result in favor of the intervention group on pain intensity in the studies for Chikungunya and in a study for HTLV, which points to a positive effect in favor of the active groups.

CONCLUSION: Exercises for the treatment of fatigue have very low evidence, while resistance exercises have moderate evidence for pain outcome. These are low-risk, low-cost resources with promising effects that should be better tested in people after viral infections.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Aerobic training combined with resistance training shows promising results for reducing pain and fatigue in this population after viral infection.
  • Pilates is a method that significantly reduces pain intensity after HTLV-1 and Chikungunya infections.
  • Exercise can benefit people with persistent pain and fatigue symptoms after viral infections.

Keywords

Pain, Physical exercise, Fatigue, Viral infections

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Indivíduos após infecções virais permanecem com sintomas persistentes, como a dor e a fadiga. Exercícios físicos têm sido descritos como alternativa promissora para o controle desses sintomas, porém não há revisões sistemáticas que verifquem a eficácia dessa terapêutica e que avaliem a qualidade destes estudos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito de exercícios físicos na dor ou fadiga associados a infecções virais.

MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática registrada na PROSPERO (CRD42021265174). A coleta de dados foi realizada entre julho de 2021 a janeiro de 2022. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados que abordaram a prática de exercícios, em indivíduos com idade superior a 18 anos, com diagnóstico de infecção viral associada à presença de dor ou fadiga por mais de três meses. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS e Scielo e, a seleção por pares foi realizada no software (rayyan.ai); a análise de risco de viés foi avaliada através da ferramenta Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials 2; a certeza da evidência por meio da GRADE; e para a construção da meta-análise, o software Review Manager.

RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 11 ensaios clínicos nas populações com Vírus da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (HIV), Virus Linfotrópico da Célula T Humana (HTLV), Chikungunya e Poliomielite. Tanto para dor quanto para a fadiga, a conjunção de exercícios aeróbicos com treino resistido, com duração de 40 a 60 minutos, de duas a três vezes por semana, foram eficazes e seguros. A qualidade metodológica dos estudos demonstrou em seis estudos alto risco de viés, devido aos domínios: viés devido a desvios das intervenções pretendidas, viés devido à falta de dados de resultado e viés na seleção do resultado relatado; classificado como algumas preocupações em um estudo devido o domínio viés devido a desvios das intervenções pretendidas; e os demais foram avaliados como baixo risco de viés. Na meta-análise foi demonstrado resultado a favor do grupo intervenção sobre a intensidade da dor nos estudos para Chikungunya e em um estudo para HTLV, o que aponta para efeito positivo a favor dos grupos ativos.

CONCLUSÃO: Os exercícios físicos no tratamento da fadiga apresentam evidências muito baixas, enquanto para o desfecho dor os exercícios resistidos apresentam moderada evidência. São recursos de baixo risco e custo, com efeitos promissores, que devem ser melhor testados em pessoas após infecções virais.

DESTAQUES

  • O treinamento aeróbico combinado com o treinamento de resistência mostra resultados promissores para reduzir a dor e a fadiga nesta população após a infecção viral.
  • O Pilates é um método que reduz significativamente a intensidade da dor após infecções por HTLV-1 e Chikungunya.
  • O exercício pode beneficiar pessoas com sintomas persistentes de dor e fadiga após infecções

Palavras-chave

Dor, Exercício físico, Fadiga, Infecções Virais

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Submitted date:
07/08/2022

Accepted date:
09/23/2022

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