Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20230024-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Review Article

Genetic testing for cannabinoid use

Testes genéticos para uso de canabinoides

Ciro Dresch Martinhago; Rafael Moraes de Albuquerque Pessoa

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cannabis is the most popular and consumed illicit drug in the world, it has about 540 bioactive phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocarbinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids has been the subject of many studies in recent decades for many medical situations, including the management of chronic pain. The advent of pharmacogenetics currently allows the indication of the Cannabis dose to be evaluated individually. The objective of this work was to carry out a survey of the literature on the medicinal use of Cannabis and the application of pharmacogenetics in this therapy.
CONTENTS: THC and CBD phytocannabinoids are the most abundant and researched. In the endocannabinoid system there are compounds similar to phytocannabinoids, cell receptors and metabolism enzymes. All these molecules are secreted from genes, which may have individual genetic polymorphisms that determine the modulation of the endocannabinoid system, and consequently impact the patients’ therapeutic response.
CONCLUSION: The existence of genetic tests for the prior assessment of the patients genetic profile in order to avoid side effects and to have more assertiveness in the indication of the cannabis product is an important tool to increase adherence to cannabis treatment.

Keywords

Cannabis, Genetic variation, Medical marijuana, Pharmacogenetics, Polymorphism, Single nucleotide

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A cannabis é a droga ilícita mais popular e consumida no mundo, possuindo cerca de 540 fitocanabinoides bioativos, entre eles o tetra-hidrocarbinol (THC) e o canabidiol (CBD). O potencial terapêutico dos fitocanabinoides tem sido alvo de muitos estudos nas últimas décadas para muitas situações médicas, incluindo o manejo da dor crônica. O advento da farmacogenética permite que atualmente a indicação da dose de cannabis seja avaliada individualmente. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento da literatura sobre o uso medicinal da cannabis e a aplicação da farmacogenética nessa terapia.
CONTEÚDO: Os fitocanabinoides THC e CBD são os mais abundantes e pesquisados. No sistema endocanabinoide, existem compostos similares aos fitocanabinoides, receptores celulares e enzimas de metabolismo. Todas essas moléculas são secretadas a partir de genes que podem possuir polimorfismos genéticos individuais determinantes para a modulação do sistema endocanabinoide e, consequentemente, impactam a resposta terapêutica do paciente.
CONCLUSÃO: A existência de testes genéticos para avaliação prévia do perfil genético do paciente a fim de evitar efeitos colaterais e ter mais assertividade na indicação do produto de cannabis é uma importante ferramenta para aumentar a aderência ao tratamento com cannabis.

Palavras-chave

Cannabis, Farmacogenética, Maconha medicinal, Nucleotídeo único, Polimorfismo, Variação genética

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Submitted date:
07/08/2022

Accepted date:
02/24/2023

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