Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20230077-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Original Article

Sleep disorders in patients with chronic pain: cross-sectional study

Distúrbios do sono em pacientes com dor crônica: estudo transversal

Michelle dos Santos Severino Costa; Caroline Carvalho Mageste; Dierisson Souza Simão; Renato Santiago Gomez

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain and its relationship with sleep disturbance are common conditions with great influence on the individual’s quality of life. The simultaneous occurrence of these two entities results in greater suffering, reduced functionality and well-being. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of chronic pain on sleep and its impact on quality of life.
METHODS: This is an observational, cross-sectional, individual, uncontrolled study carried out at the Multidisciplinary Pain Center of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - HC-UFMG). The patients answered a semi-structured, face-to-face interview via the pain center’s own computer system (avaliaDor®), using internet-connected mobile devices. Socioeconomic and pain data was collected, and then instruments were applied to assess pain intensity (Visual Numerical Scale - VNS), quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 36 - Short Form Health Survey - SF-36), presence of psychiatric disturbances (Hospital Depression Anxiety Scale - HAD) and sleep (Mini Sleep Questionnaire - MSQ).
RESULTS: One hundred and three patients participated in the study. Seventy two percent were women, the median age was 55 years, and the patients were predominantly married, white and with a low level of schooling. Of the entire study population 74.76% presented “severe difficulty” in sleeping, while 22.33% had “good quality” sleep. Regarding pain intensity, patients in the moderate and severe pain groups had a higher percentage of “severe difficulty” in sleeping, when compared to patients with mild pain. About the presence of anxiety and depression, it was observed lower scores on: “restless sleep”, “tiredness for no apparent reason”, “wakes up with a headache”, “wakes up and goes back to sleep”, “wakes up tired in the morning”, and finally “wakes up and does not go back to sleep”. The general data from the SF-36 points to a low quality of life for the patients in the present study and, based on the multivariate analysis, the items “SF-36-Pain and SF-36-Vitalidade” were shown to be protective factors for the presence of sleep disturbances.
CONCLUSION: Sleep disorders in patients with chronic pain are common and show a worsening in quality of life. The frequency of this disturbance was higher in patients with anxiety and depression compared to patients without these psychiatric disorders. The early identification of sleep disturbances in individuals with chronic pain is necessary to improve well-being.

Keywords

Chronic pain, Quality of life, Sleep

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dor crônica e os distúrbios do sono são condições comuns. A ocorrência simultânea dessas duas entidades resulta em maior sofrimento pessoal e redução do bem-estar e da funcionalidade. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a influência da dor crônica no sono e o seu impacto na qualidade de vida. 
MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal, individual e não controlado, realizado no Centro Multidisciplinar de Dor do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG). Os pacientes responderam a uma entrevista semiestruturada, face a face, por meio do sistema de computador do próprio centro de dor (avaliaDor®), utilizando dispositivos móveis conectados à internet. Foram coletados dados socioeconômicos e de dor; em seguida foram aplicados instrumentos para avaliar a intensidade da dor (Escala Visual Numérica - EVN), a qualidade de vida (Medical Outcomes Study 36 - Short Form Health Survey - SF-36), a presença de distúrbios psiquiátricos (Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão - HAD) e o sono (Mini Sleep Questionnaire - MSQ).
RESULTADOS Cento e três pacientes participaram do estudo. Setenta e dois por cento eram do sexo feminino, com mediana de idade de 55 anos, com predominância de brancos com baixo nível de escolaridade. De toda a população estudada, 74,76% dos participantes apresentaram “dificuldade grave” para dormir, enquanto 22,33% tiveram “boa qualidade” de sono. Em relação à intensidade da dor, os pacientes dos grupos de dor moderada e intensa apresentaram maior percentual de “dificuldade grave” para dormir quando comparados aos pacientes com dor leve. Em relação à presença de ansiedade e depressão, observou-se maior pontuação nos itens: “sono agitado”, “cansaço sem motivo aparente”, “acorda com dor de cabeça”, “acorda e volta a dormir”, “acorda cansado pela manhã” e, por fim, “acorda e não volta a dormir”. Os dados gerais do 
SF-36 apontam para uma baixa qualidade de vida dos doentes do presente estudo e, com base na análise multivariada, os itens 
“SF-36-Dor e SF-36-Vitalidade” revelaram-se fatores protetores da presença de perturbações do sono.
CONCLUSÃO: Os distúrbios de sono em pacientes com dor crônica são comuns e determinam piora na qualidade de vida. A frequência desse distúrbio foi maior nos pacientes com ansiedade e depressão, em comparação com os pacientes que não apresentaram essas desordens psiquiátricas. A identificação precoce dos distúrbios do sono, em indivíduos com dor crônica, é fundamental para alcançar maior bem-estar.

Palavras-chave

Dor crônica, Qualidade de vida, Sono

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Submitted date:
05/22/2023

Accepted date:
09/16/2023

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