Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20230080-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Original Article

Delirium and pain in patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery: prevalence and associated risk factors

Delirium e dor em pacientes no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca: prevalência e fatores de risco associados

Luiz Fernando Sposito Ribeiro Baltazar; Gabriel Baeta Branquinho Reis; Arthur Marot de Paiva; Pedro Guimarães Moreira da Silva; Artur Henrique de Souza; Giulliano Gardenghi

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delirium is an acute mental status change, with fluctuating course and high incidence in cardiac surgery (CS) post-operative (PO) period. Delirium can lead to short and long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of delirium and pain and their risk factors on the 1st PO day after CS.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical research. To determine the presence of PO delirium, the Confusion Assessment Method modified for Intensive Care Unit setting (CAM-ICU) and the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) were used. PO pain was analyzed using the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) and the presence of neuropathic components was analyzed using the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) scale. After bedside analysis, patients were divided into Delirium (D) and Without Delirium (WD) groups.
RESULTS: The total number of patients was 79. The prevalence of delirium was 16.5% (95% CI = 9.06 - 26.49%) and the mean number of comorbidities in the preoperative period was a significant risk factor for the occurrence of delirium (D =4.15±2.37 versus WD=2.96±1.78, p: 0.04). Another significant risk factor was the group older than 65 years of age, with the occurrence of delirium 1.45 times higher (PR=1.12-1.88, p: 0.0014). Regarding pain evaluation, 72.15% (95% CI 60.93 - 81.65%) reported it in the 1st PO day.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of delirium was similar to previous studies. The number of previous comorbidities and advanced age were risk factors for delirium. Pain was present predominantly over the sternotomy incision region.

Keywords

Delirium, Cardiovascular surgical procedures, Postoperative pain

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Delirium é uma alteração aguda do estado mental, com curso flutuante e alta incidência no pós-operatório (PO) de cirurgia cardíaca (CC). O delirium pode levar a consequências a curto e longo prazo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de delirium e dor e seus fatores de risco no 1º dia PO após CC. 
MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal analítico. Para determinar delirium no PO, foram utilizados o Confusion Assessment Method modificado para ambiente de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (CAM-UTI) e a Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS). A dor PO foi analisada por meio da Escala Analógica Visual (EAV) e a presença de componentes neuropáticos foi analisada por meio da Escala de Avaliação de Sintomas e Sinais Neuropáticos de Leeds (LANSS). Após análise, os pacientes foram divididos nos grupos Delirium (D) e Sem Delirium (SD). 
RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 79 pacientes. A prevalência de delirium foi de 16,5% (IC 95%=9,06-26,49%) e o número médio de comorbidades no pré-operatório foi um fator de risco significativo para a ocorrência de delirium (D=4,15±2,37 versus SD=2,96±1,78, p: 0,04). Outro fator de risco foi o grupo com mais de 65 anos, com ocorrência de delirium 1,45 vezes maior (RP=1,12-1,88, p: 0,0014). Em relação à avaliação da dor, 72,15% (IC 95% 60,93-81,65%) a relataram no 1º dia PO. 
CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de delirium foi semelhante à de estudos anteriores. O número de comorbidades prévias e a idade avançada foram fatores de risco para delirium. A dor estava presente predominantemente na região da incisão da esternotomia.

Palavras-chave

Delirium, Dor pós-operatória, Procedimentos cirúrgicos cardiovasculares

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Submitted date:
07/23/2023

Accepted date:
09/27/2023

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