Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20230083-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Original Article

Combined ultrasound and electric field stimulations improve pain and functional capacity in immediate cesarean delivery: a randomized clinical trial, double-blind, and placebo-controlled

Terapia combinada de estimulação elétrica por meio do ultrassom melhora a dor e a capacidade funcional no pós-parto imediato de cesariana: ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego e placebo

Thalita Cristina Wolff Bertotti; Rubneide Barreto Silva Gallo; Laysse Candido da Silva; Talita Gnoato Zotz; Natália Boneti Moreira; Raciele Ivandra Guarda Korelo

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Wound complications and pharmacological pain relief methods used at the skin surgical site after cesarean delivery may result in women’s physical and emotional burden. Thus, nonpharmacological treatments must be explored to avoid these complications and side effects on maternal health. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Combined Ultrasound and Electric Field Stimulation (CUSEFS) on cicatricial pain and functional capacity in immediate cesarean delivery.
METHODS: This study has a randomized clinical trial, double-blind, and placebo-controlled design. Thirty women (25.7±5.0 years) in immediate postpartum were randomly assigned to three groups: Control (CG, n:9), CUSEFS (TG, n:11), and Placebo (PG, n:10). CUSEFS was performed once for 20 minutes. Cicatricial pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire) and functional capacity (Functional Capacity Check) was assessed at baseline, after the intervention, and after 30 minutes. Cohen’s (d) and Mixed-design analysis of variance were used to compare groups.
RESULTS: Immediately after the intervention, TG showed a decrease in cicatricial pain compared with CG in sensory (d:3.8 to 4.0), affective (d:4.0), and total categories (d:3.9). In functional capacity, TG had less difficulty than CG at walking (d:0.6) and lying down (d:1.1), and PG at rest (d: 0.9).
CONCLUSION: CUSEFS might be a resource for managing cicatricial pain and functional capacity in immediate cesarean delivery. Further studies with longer duration and different CUSEFS doses/parameters are required.

Keywords

Cesarean section, Combined modality therapy, Electric stimulation therapy, Pain, Ultrasonic therapy

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As complicações na ferida e o uso de métodos farmacológicos de alívio da dor no local cirúrgico após a cesariana podem resultar em sobrecarga física e emocional para a mulher. Assim, tratamentos não farmacológicos devem ser explorados para evitar essas complicações e efeitos adversos à saúde materna. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da terapia combinada de estimulação elétrica por meio do ultrassom (CUSEFS) na dor cicatricial e na capacidade funcional no pós-parto imediato de cesariana. 
MÉTODOS: Este estudo possui um desenho de ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado por placebo. Trinta mulheres (25,7±5,0 anos) em pós-parto imediato de cesariana foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos: Controle (CG, n:9), CUSEFS (TG:11) e Placebo (PG, n:10). O CUSEFS foi realizado uma vez por 20 minutos. A dor cicatricial (Questionário de Dor McGill) e a capacidade funcional (Functional Capacity Check) foram avaliadas no início, após a intervenção e após 30 minutos. As análises de variância de design misto e Cohen (d) foram usadas para comparar os grupos. 
RESULTADOS: Imediatamente após a intervenção, o TG apresentou diminuição na dor cicatricial em relação ao CG nas categorias sensorial (d:3,8 a 4,0), afetiva (d:4,0) e total (d:3,9). Na capacidade funcional, o TG apresentou menor dificuldade que o CG na marcha (d:0,6) e deitado (d:1,1), e que o PG em repouso (d:0,9). 
CONCLUSÃO: O CUSEFS pode ser um recurso para o manejo da dor cicatricial e da capacidade funcional imediatamente após a cesariana. Além disso, são necessários mais estudos com maior duração e diferentes doses/parâmetros de CUSEFS.

Palavras-chave

Cesariana, Dor, Terapia combinada, Terapia por estimulação elétrica, Ultrassom

References

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Submitted date:
04/28/2023

Accepted date:
09/29/2023

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