Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20230084-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Review Article

Incidence and impacts of pain in intensive care units: systematic review

Incidência e impactos da dor em unidades de terapia intensiva:  revisão sistemática

Iura Gonzalez Alves; Rafaela Dias Bezerra; Bianca Borges de Brito

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Intensive Care Units (ICU), patients are exposed to multiple procedures that can be painful, and health professionals are not always aware of the pain in these patients. Inadequate pain assessment and management, in turn, has been associated with several adverse outcomes, including an increased rate of infection, prolonged mechanical ventilation, hemodynamic disturbances, delirium, and compromised immunity. Thus, this study aimed to summarize the scientific evidence about the incidence and impacts of pain in critically ill patients.
CONTENTS: A systematic review of observational studies (Pubmed and EMBASE databases) was performed with predetermined eligibility criteria. In the 32 studies included, it was identified that 10.1% to 61% of patients had pain at rest and 27.4% to 94% during procedures. In addition, there was evidence of improvement in patient outcomes after using validated instruments for pain measurement, including decreased length of ICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, delirium, adverse events, and disease severity.
CONCLUSION: Through the present study, it was observed that pain is a common phenomenon in ICU and that its identification and management constitute a realistic goal and depend on the evaluation. Furthermore, pain appears to be associated with worse clinical outcomes. Therefore, efforts must be made to provide comprehensive care for critically ill patients, aiming not only at their survival, but also at alleviating their suffering.

Keywords

Association measure, Exposure risk or outcome, Intensive care unit, Pain, Pain measurement, Systematic review

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) os pacientes são expostos a múltiplos procedimentos que podem ser dolorosos, e nem sempre os profissionais de saúde estão alertas para a dor nesses pacientes. A avaliação e o manejo inadequado da dor, por sua vez, têm sido associados a uma série de resultados adversos, incluindo aumento da taxa de infecção, ventilação mecânica prolongada, distúrbios hemodinâmicos, delírio e imunidade comprometida. Dessa forma, este estudo teve como objetivo sumarizar as evidências científicas acerca da incidência e dos impactos da dor em pacientes críticos. 
CONTEÚDO: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de estudos observacionais (bases de dados Pubmed e EMBASE) com critérios de elegibilidade predeterminados. Nos 32 estudos incluídos, foi identificado que de 10,1% a 61% dos pacientes apresentaram dor em repouso, e de 27,4% a 94% apresentaram dor durante os procedimentos. Além disso, houve evidências de melhora nos resultados dos pacientes após o uso de instrumentos validados para a mensuração da dor, incluindo diminuição do tempo de permanência na UTI, duração da ventilação mecânica, mortalidade, delírio, eventos adversos e gravidade da doença.
CONCLUSÃO: Através do presente estudo foi observado que a dor representa um fenômeno comum nas UTI e que a sua identificação e manejo constitui uma meta realista e dependente da avaliação. Além disso, a dor parece estar associada a piores desfechos clínicos. Sendo assim, deve-se voltar esforços para o cuidado integral ao paciente crítico, objetivando não só sua sobrevivência, mas também o alívio do seu sofrimento.

Palavras-chave

Dor, Exposição risco ou desfecho, Medição da dor, Medida de associação, Revisão sistemática, Unidade de terapia intensiva

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Submitted date:
07/09/2023

Accepted date:
09/21/2023

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