Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20240002-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Review Article

Primary somesthetic cortex involvement in fibromyalgia: review of neuroimage studies

Envolvimento do córtex somestésico primário na fibromialgia: revisão de estudos de neuroimagem

Maria Mônica da Silva Menezes; Flavio José Neto Campos; Marília Silveira Maia; Felipe Ribeiro Fernandes da Silva; Jeffeson Hildo Medeiros de Queiroz

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms underlying nociplastic pain, such as fibromyalgia (FM), are not fully understood, however, it is believed that altered sensory processing and pain modulation play prominent roles in the maintenance of nociplastic pain. The hypothesis is that changes in the primary somesthetic cortex (S1) contribute to the generalized pain character of FM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the involvement of the primary somesthetic cortex in humans with fibromyalgia, as well as to investigate possible associations between S1 changes and clinical signs and symptoms of FM.
CONTENTS: For this integrative review, the following databases were used: Pubmed and Web of Science, including observational studies carried out in humans with FM. In total, 541 studies were identified and four were included. The majority of studies are case-control studies, published between 2016 and 2022. In total, data from 161 individuals were included in this review. It was identified that there are morphological changes, hyperactivation and increased functional connectivity between S1 and periaqueductal gray matter and between S1 and anterior cingulate cortex.
CONCLUSION: Patients with FM present morphological changes and hyperactivation in S1, as well as increased functional connectivity between S1 and periaqueductal gray matter and S1 and limbic system. Furthermore, different bilateral somatotropic subregions (legs, chest, fingers, hands, face and back) showed reduced functional connectivity in patients with FM. These regions are often presented as “tender points” in FM.

Keywords

Brain, General symptoms, Musculoskeletal pain

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os mecanismos subjacentes à dor nociplástica, como a fibromialgia (FM), não são totalmente compreendidos, contudo acredita-se que o processamento sensorial e a modulação da dor alterados desempenham papéis proeminentes para a manutenção da dor nociplástica. Com a hipótese de que alterações no córtex somestésico primário (S1) contribuam para o caráter de dor generalizada da FM, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o envolvimento do córtex somestésico primário em humanos com FM, bem como investigar possíveis associações entre alterações de S1 com sinais e sintomas clínicos da FM.
CONTEÚDO: Para esta revisão integrativa, foram utilizadas as seguintes bases de dados: Pubmed e Web of Science, incluindo estudos observacionais realizados em humanos com FM. No total, 541 estudos foram identificados e quatro foram incluídos. A maioria dos estudos são do tipo caso-controle, publicados entre 2016 e 2022. Ao todo, dados de 161 indivíduos foram incluídos. Foi identificado que há alterações morfológicas, hiperativação e aumento da conectividade funcional entre S1 e substância cinzenta periaquedutal e entre S1 e córtex cingulado anterior.
CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com FM apresentam alterações morfológicas e hiperativação em S1, bem como aumento da conectividade funcional entre S1 e substância cinzenta periaquedutal e S1 e sistema límbico. Ademais, diferentes sub-regiões somatotrópicas bilaterais (pernas, tórax, dedos, mãos, face e costas) apresentaram redução da conectividade funcional em pacientes com FM. Essas regiões são frequentemente apresentadas como “tender points” na FM.

Palavras-chave

Dor musculoesquelética, Encéfalo, Sintomas gerais

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Submitted date:
08/05/2023

Accepted date:
11/17/2023

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