Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20240005-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Original Article

Multidisciplinary treatment program for improvement in pain and disability associated with nonspecific chronic low back pain

Programa de tratamento multidisciplinar para melhora da dor e incapacidade associada a dor crônica lombar inespecífica

Grasiele Correa de Melo Padilha; Rafael Fernandes Zanin; Charles Francisco Ferreira; Liciane Fernandes Medeiros

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lumbar disorders, which contribute to significant workplace absenteeism and chronic disability, are associated with a considerable financial and social burden. Although a conservative approach provides satisfactory pain relief, biomechanical improvement and is associated with a low risk of adverse effects, there is lack of consensus in the literature regarding the best therapeutic strategy in such cases.
METHODS: This retrospective longitudinal study used secondary data from the institutional medical records of patients who completed a multidisciplinary program for the treatment of low back pain between 2019 and 2021. Data regarding pain levels and motor skills were obtained from patients who completed the care program at a private hospital in Bento Gonçalves, RS. The following step-wise treatment algorithm was used: evaluation by a specialist physician for the etiological diagnosis of pain, pharmacological management and dry needling, followed by standard rehabilitation intervention performed by the physiotherapy team and exercises by the physical education team. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure pain at the start and at the completion of the intervention, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to measure motor skills at the start and at 6 and 12 months following the multiprofessional intervention for rehabilitation.
RESULTS: A reduction in pain and motor disability in patients who completed all stages of the treatment program was observed. Pain by the VAS presented the following scores: baseline 7 [5-8] and after treatment 2 [0-4]; and the scores of the ODI were: at baseline 0.34 [0.26 - 0.40], at 6 months 0.16 [0.08 - 0.26] and after treatment 0.12 [0.04 - 0.21].
CONCLUSION: The treatment program reduced the pain and disability associated with low back pain and can serve as the basis for further studies carried out to confirm the effectiveness of this intervention.

Keywords

Clinical protocols, Dry needling, Low back pain, Motor disability, Multidisciplinary protocol, Rehabilitation, Visual analogue scale

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As doenças lombares, que contribuem para um absenteísmo significativo no local de trabalho e para a incapacidade crônica, estão associadas a um encargo financeiro e social considerável. Embora a abordagem conservadora proporcione alívio satisfatório da dor, melhore a biomecânica e esteja associada a baixo risco de efeitos adversos, não há consenso na literatura sobre a melhor estratégia terapêutica nesses casos. 
MÉTODOS: Neste estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, foram utilizados dados secundários dos prontuários médicos institucionais de pacientes que completaram um programa multidisciplinar para tratamento de dor lombar entre 2019 e 2021. Dados sobre níveis de dor e habilidades motoras foram obtidos de pacientes que completaram o programa assistencial de um hospital privado de Bento Gonçalves, RS. Foi utilizado o seguinte tratamento passo a passo: avaliação por médico especialista para diagnóstico etiológico da dor, manejo farmacológico e agulhamento a seco, seguido de intervenção de reabilitação padrão realizada pela equipe de fisioterapia e exercícios pela equipe de educação física. A escala analógica visual (EAV) foi utilizada para medir a dor no início e após a conclusão da intervenção, e o Índice de Incapacidade de Oswestry (ODI) foi usado para medir as habilidades motoras no início e aos 6 e 12 meses após a intervenção multiprofissional para reabilitação.
RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução na dor e na incapacidade motora em pacientes que completaram todas as etapas do programa de tratamento. A intensidade da dor medida pela EAV apresentou as seguintes pontuações: basal 7 [5-8] e após tratamento 2 [0-4]; enquanto o ODI apresentou as pontuações: basal 0,34 [0,26 – 0,40], até 6 meses 0,16 [0,08 – 0,26] e após o tratamento 0,12 [0,04 – 0,21].
CONCLUSÃO: O programa de tratamento reduziu a dor e a incapacidade associadas à dor lombar e pode servir de base para novos estudos realizados para confirmar a eficácia desta intervenção.

Palavras-chave

Agulhamento a seco, Deficiência motora, Dor lombar, Escala analógica visual, Protocolo multidisciplinar, Protocolos clínicos, Reabilitação

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Submitted date:
07/30/2023

Accepted date:
12/05/2023

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