Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20240016-en
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Original Article

Fear and avoidance of shoulder movement according to the International Code of Functioning: cross-sectional study

Medo e evitação de movimento do ombro segundo o Código Internacional de Funcionalidade: estudo transversal

Wellington Fernando de Paes Biondi; Marcela Camargo Tozzo; Felipe José Jandre dos Reis; Gisele Harumi Hotta; Rafael Krasic Alaiti; Anamaria Siriani de Oliveira

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shoulder pain is a limiting condition that has a major impact on daily activities and work. Knowing which specific activities involving the shoulder are associated with the occurrence of higher levels of pain may be of interest to professionals. The use of images of shoulder movements can be an effective tool to check the presence of pain and fear of movement, break down language and cultural barriers, and facilitate communication between professional and patient. The objectives of this study were: (1) to carry out a descriptive analysis of fear responses and movement avoidance based on passive viewing of images of shoulder movements based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) codes; (2) to check whether there is a correlation between fear responses and movement avoidance with the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI).
METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, individuals with chronic shoulder pain were recruited. Participants responded to the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the TAMPA Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) to measure the intensity of shoulder pain and disability, and fear of movement, respectively. Participants viewed 58 movement images based on codes and descriptors from the third chapter of ICF. In addition, they responded to a numerical scale to judge fear of movement and a second numerical scale to judge movement avoidance.
RESULTS: The study included 42 individuals. The activities belonging to the mobility subgroup (chapter 4), which refers to chapter 3 of the ICF, are those that present greater responses of fear and movement avoidance. Multiple regression resulted in a significant model [F(1, 40) = 31.119; p<0.001; R2 = 0.438], when verifying whether fear and movement avoidance responses related to ICF images are associated with SPADI in participants with chronic shoulder pain. The fear response is associated with SPADI (β=0.661; t=5.578; p<0.001), however, the avoidance response did not present a significant result with the scale (β=−0.063; t=-0.160; p=0.874).
CONCLUSION: Movements that refer to mobility seem to be the most feared and avoided by people with chronic shoulder pain. Fear of movement is associated with shoulder disability.

Keywords

Chronic pain, Fear, Shoulder pain

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dor no ombro é uma condição limitante, que apresenta grande impacto nas atividades de vida diárias e no trabalho. Conhecer quais atividades específicas envolvendo o ombro estão associadas à ocorrência de maiores níveis de dor pode ser de interesse dos profissionais. A utilização de imagens de movimentos do ombro pode ser uma ferramenta eficaz para verificar a presença de dor e medo de movimento, quebrar barreiras de linguagem e culturais e facilitar a comunicação entre profissional e paciente. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (1) realizar a análise descritiva das respostas de medo e evitação do movimento a partir da visualização passiva de imagens de movimentos do ombro baseadas nos códigos da Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF); (2) verificar se há correlação das respostas de medo e evitação do movimento com o Índice de dor e Incapacidade do Ombro (SPADI). 
MÉTODOS: Neste estudo observacional do tipo transversal foram recrutadas pessoas com dor crônica no ombro. Os participantes responderam ao Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) e à Escala TAMPA de Cinesiofobia (TSK) para mensurar a intensidade da dor e incapacidade do ombro, e de medo do movimento, respectivamente. Os participantes visualizaram 58 imagens de movimentos baseadas em códigos e descritores do terceiro capítulo de Atividade e Participação da CIF. Além disso, responderam a uma escala numérica para julgar o medo do movimento e a uma segunda escala numérica para julgar a evitação ao movimento. 
RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 42 pessoas. As atividades pertencentes ao subgrupo mobilidade (capítulo 4), referente ao capítulo 3 da CIF, são as que apresentam maiores respostas de medo e evitação do movimento. A regressão múltipla resultou em um modelo significativo [F (1, 40) = 31, 119; p<0,001; R2 = 0,438], ao verificar se as respostas de medo e evitação do movimento referente às imagens da CIF estão associadas ao SPADI dos participantes com dor crônica no ombro. A resposta de medo é associada ao SPADI (β=0,661; t=5,578; p<0,001), porém a resposta de evitação não apresentou resultado significativo com a escala (β=-0,063; t=-0,160; p=0,874).
CONCLUSÃO: Os movimentos que se referem à mobilidade parecem ser os mais temidos e evitados por pessoas com dor crônica no ombro. O medo do movimento está associado com a incapacidade do ombro.

Palavras-chave

Dor crônica, Dor de ombro, Medo

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Submitted date:
10/20/2023

Accepted date:
02/02/2024

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