Brazilian Journal of Pain
https://brjp.org.br/article/doi/10.5935/2595-0118.20200051
Brazilian Journal of Pain
Case Report

Pain management in patients with knee osteoarthritis by ultrasound-guided genicular nerve block. Case reports

Manejo de dor em pacientes com osteoartrite de joelho por bloqueio dos nervos geniculares guiado por ultrassonografia. Relato de casos

Thiago Alves Rodrigues; Eduardo José Silva Gomes de Oliveira; João Batista Santos Garcia

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that tends to affect elderly people and is characterized by severe pain, joint stiffness and limited function. In more advanced cases, the initial approach of knee osteoarthritis performed with traditional conservative pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment may not present satisfactory results. There are alternatives for pain intervention with favorable results, with longer analgesia and that can help rehabilitation, such as analgesic peripheral nerve blocks, including the genicular nerve block, and radiofrequency ablation. The objective of this study is to report cases of genicular nerve block guided by ultrasonography, with favorable results in relation to analgesia and return of functional capacity.

CASE REPORTS: Four elderly patients diagnosed with advanced knee osteoarthritis, with limited range of motion, and with severe chronic pain (mean visual numeric scale - VNS=7.75) were submitted to ultrasound-guided genicular nerve block, presenting significant pain improvement (mean VNS after 1 month of block=2.25) and regain of functional capacity. There were no cases of complications.

CONCLUSION: Genicular nerve block guided by ultrasonography is a technique that can be performed as an intervention measure in pain. It presents satisfactory results of analgesia and regain of functional capacity, facilitating the rehabilitation process, and can be adopted in an outpatient clinic context.

Keywords

Knee osteoarthritis, Nerve block, Pain, Ultrasonography

Resumo

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A osteoartrite do joelho é uma doença crônica que tende a afetar pessoas idosas e é caracterizada por dor intensa, rigidez articular e limitação da mobilidade. Em casos mais avançados, a abordagem da osteoartrite do joelho com o tratamento conservador convencional farmacológico e não farmacológico pode não apresentar resultados satisfatórios. Nesse sentido, existem alternativas de intervenção em dor com resultados favoráveis, com maior tempo de analgesia e que auxiliam a reabilitação, como a realização de bloqueios analgésicos em nervos periféricos, como bloqueio dos nervos geniculares e a ablação por radiofrequência. Este estudo teve como objetivo relatar casos de bloqueios dos nervos geniculares guiados por ultrassonografia, com resultados favoráveis em relação à analgesia e retorno da capacidade funcional.

RELATO DOS CASOS: Quatro pacientes idosos diagnosticados com osteoartrite de joelho em grau avançado, com limitação da amplitude de movimento e com dor crônica, com intensidade média de 7,75 pela escala visual numérica, foram submetidos ao bloqueio de nervos geniculares guiado por ultrassonografia, apresentando melhora importante da dor após um mês do bloqueio, com intensidade média de 2,25 e reganho da capacidade funcional, não havendo casos de complicações relacionadas aos bloqueios.

CONCLUSÃO: O bloqueio dos nervos geniculares guiado por ultrassonografia é uma técnica que promoveu analgesia satisfatória e ganho da capacidade funcional, além de facilitar o processo de reabilitação, podendo ser realizada em caráter ambulatorial.

Palavras-chave

Bloqueio nervoso, Dor, Osteoartrite do joelho, Ultrassonografia

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Submitted date:
02/14/2020

Accepted date:
05/10/2020

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